There are many references to forts and fortifications in ancient and medieval literature dating from the Vedic times. In the Ṛgveda, the word pur refers to a large settlement that was protected by fortifications or other means.
The Aitareya Brāhmaṇa refers to the three Agnis (fires) as three forts that prevent the asuras (demons) from disturbing the sacrifice.
Kautilya’s Arthaśāstra gives a detailed account of an ideal fortified city. Durg is the Indian term for ‘fort’, and means ‘difficult to trespass’, signifying the importance of a strategic site, a strong wall, and a moat to make it an impregnable bastion.
There are six types of forts: the dhania durg (desert fort), the Mahi durg (the mud fort), the jala durg (the water fort), the girl durg (hill fort), the vṛkṣa or vana durg (the forest fort) and the Nara Durg (fort protected by men).
India is dotted with forts built by various rulers, such as the Rajputs and then Muslim dynasties. In northern India, fort architecture was a combination of traditional architecture and Central Asian and Persian influences. The South being geographically isolated, its architecture was not influenced to that level and generally retained its styles.
The Rajputs were creative builders and erected some of the most illustrious and impressive forts and palaces. Some of the forts are at Kangra, Rai Pithora, Chittorgarh, Gwalior, Kumbhalgarh, Jaisalmer, Meharangarh, Junagarh, and Amber, Jaigarh, and Shrirangapatnam. These forts and palaces have complex compositions.
The Kangra Fort (Himachal Pradesh) was built by the royal Rajput family of Kangra (the Katoca dynasty) and traces its origins to the ancient Trigarta kingdom mentioned in the Mahābhārata.
It is the largest fort in the Himalayas and probably the oldest dated fort in India. The fort was first mentioned in Alexander the Great’s war records, which would bring it to the 4th century BCE.
Left: Chittorgarh Fort, Right: Vijaya stambha (source: Wikipedia) Chittorgarh, the oldest surviving fort, is said to have been constructed by the Mor kings between the 5th and the 8th centuries and is named after one of them, Chitrangada Mori, as inscribed on the coins of the period.
The fort complex comprises 65 historic built structures, among them four palace complexes, nineteen main temples, four memorials, and twenty functional water bodies. The first hill fort with one main entrance was established in the 5th century and successively fortified until the 12th century.
The second, a more significant defense structure, was constructed in the 15th century during the reign of the Sisodia Rajputs.
Besides the palace complex, located on the highest and most secure terrain to the west of the fort, many of the other significant structures, such as the Kumbha Shyam, Mira Bai, Adi Varah, and Shringar Chauri temples, and the Vijaya stambha (pillar of victory) memorial were constructed in this second phase.
Another important surviving fort is at Gwalior. This fort, bounded by solid walls of sandstone, is sprawled over a hilltop measuring over 2 km in length.
The fort complex includes temples, palaces, and several water tanks. Moreover, the southern path is bounded by intricately carved rock-cut temples of Jain tīrthāṅkars.
The Telī-kā-Mandir the temple follows the Drāviḍa style of architecture, as does the 9th-century Caturbhuj A mandir is an example of a Vaiṣṇavite shrine. The Man Singh Palace is a famous early 16th-century palace built by Raja Man Singh Tomar.
The Kumbhalgarh fort is located on the banks of the Banas River and is the second most important fort after that of Chittorgarh. Both were built under the rule of Rana Kumbha.
The Kumbhalgarh fort is accessed through a series of seven gateways named Aret Pol, Halla Pol, Hanuman Pol, Ram Pol, Vijay Pol, Nimboo Pol, and Bhairon Pol. The fort’s perimeter walls extend to 36 km.
The frontal walls are three meters thick; the ramparts reach a height of 3 to 5 m, reinforced by circular structures. All gates leading toward the palace compound on the western side of the fort are roofed and flanked by additional structures.
There are over 360 temples within the fort, 300 ancient Jain, and the rest are Hindu.
Jaisalmer Fort, built-in 1156 by Rawal Jaisal, a Bhati Rajput ruler, stands on the stark stretches of the great Thar Desert, on the Trikuta Hill. Architecturally, the Jaisalmer fort consists of three layers of wall.
The outer wall (the lowest) is composed of solid stone blocks. From the inner wall, Rajput warriors used to throw boiling water, oil, and massive blocks of rocks at the enemies, when they got trapped between the inner and the middle walls.
Mehrangarh Fort is an architectural marvel that stands proudly on a 125-m-long hill in the historic city of Jodhpur. Rao Jodha, the founder of Jodhpur, started the construction of this fort in the 15th century, but it was completed during the reign of Maharaja Jaswant Singh two centuries later. The fort wall spreads over some 5 km.
The fort is situated 120 m above the city and is enclosed by imposing thick walls. The Jaypol or the gate of victory is the starting point of the fort.
Maharaja Man Singh who ruled Jodhpur in the 19th century used this gate to commemorate his victory over the armies of Jaipur and Bikaner.
Apart from this gate, there are six other gates. The Iron Gate preserves the handprints of the wives of Maharaja Man Singh who immolated themselves
on their husband’s funeral pyre. The area within this fort is covered with spacious courtyards and decorated palaces.
The main palaces of the fort include Motī Mahal (Pearl Palace), Phūl Mahal (Flower Palace), Śīśa Mahal (Mirror Palace), Sileh Khānā, and Daulat Khānā. Some artifacts of the era like musical instruments and royal attire are also
preserved in the palaces.
The Junagarh fort, located in Bikaner, is one of the most impressive fort complexes in India. It was built by Raja Rai Singh in 1588. It is one of those few forts that are not built on a hilltop.
There are 37 red sandstones (Dulmera) and marble inside the premises of the fort, which include palaces with intricately carved windows, beautiful balconies, towers, temples, and pavilions.
The highlights of the fort are the Candra Mahal, decorated beautifully with mirrors, paintings, and carved marble panels, the Phūl Mahal, the Karan Mahal, and the multi-storeyed Anūp Mahal, which was once used as the governance chambers for the rulers.
Gaṅgā Niwās, Dūngar Niwās, Vijai Mahal, and Raṅg Mahal is also fine example of splendid architecture. Amber Fort, is set in a picturesque location, a little away from Jaipur, the capital of Rajasthan state was built by the Kacchawāha Raja Man Singh in 1592.
Its architectural style is a blend of Hindu and Mughal architecture. Huddling on the hilltop, the fort showcased some unique work of delicate glass mirrors on the walls and ceiling that reflect the golden rays of the sun all over the premises.
The fort is built in red sandstone and white marble. The entrance to the fort is through the Sūraj Pol which opens into the Jaleb Chowk, the main courtyard.
The most prominent structures inside the Amber fort are the Diwān-i-Ām (the hall of public audience) and the Diwān-i-Khās (the Hall of private audience).
The magnificent Jaigarh Fort or ‘victory fort’ was constructed near Jaipur by Sawai Jai Singh in 1726 and is rugged and similar in structural design to the Amber Fort.
The fort is built with thick walls of red sandstone and is spread over a vast range of 3 km in length, with a width of 1 km. The fort houses an enormous 50-ton cannon on wheels known as ‘Jaivana Cannon’ and a huge palace complex. This includes the Laxmī Vilās, Lalit Mandir, and the Vilās Mandir.
In contrast to the complex compositions of forts and palaces built by Rajputs, the Islamic forts and palaces, like Purānā Quilā (‘old fort’) and Lāl Quilā (‘red fort’) in Delhi, tend to be symmetrical. The architecture of these forts is a blend of Islamic, Persian, and Indian styles of architecture.
These were built of sandstone or marble and were endowed with jharokhās (a type of overhanging balcony), chatrīs (elevated, dome-shaped pavilions), chajjās (projecting eaves or cover usually supported on large carved brackets), and jālīs (perforated stone or latticed screen used for ventilation as well as decoration).
The Purāna Quilā was constructed by Humayun and Sher Shah. The walls of the fort rise to a height of 18 m, traverse about 1.5 km, and have three arched gateways: the Humayun Darwāzā, Talāqī Darwāzā, and Barā Darwāzā. All the gates are huge, double-storeyed, and built with red sandstone.
They are flanked by two huge semi-circular bastion towers, decorated with white and colored-marble inlays and blue tiles. They are also replete with ornate overhanging jharokhās (balconies) and are topped by pillared chatrīs (pavilions).
Another important fort is Agra’s majestic Red Fort built by Emperor Akbar. It contains numerous impressive structures like the Jahāngīr Mahal, Khās Mahal, Dīwan-i- Khās, Dīwan-i-Ām, Macchī Bhawan and Motī Masjid. This Agra fort is enclosed by a double battlemented massive wall of red sandstone.
Most of the buildings added later used marble as the chief construction material. Delhi’s Lāl Quilā (Red Fort) and Agra’s Tāj Mahal were built in the mid-17th century by Emperor Shahjahan is the pinnacle of Mughal architectural achievement.
The Lāl Quilā, built of red sandstone is octagonal, with two longer sides on the east and west.
The perimeter of its strong ramparts is about 2.4 km. The Red Fort rises to a height of 33.5 m on the town side and 18 m along the river.
A wide moat surrounds the fort, which was originally connected with the Yamuna and was always filled with water. The two main gateways, known as Lahori Gate and Delhi Gate (so named as they face Lahore and Delhi respectively) are three-story-high and flanked by semi-octagonal towers.
The main entrance to the Lāl Quilā is through the Lahori Gate. Beyond the gate, there is a roofed passage, flanked by arcaded apartments leading to the palaces, known as Chattā Chowk. Some of the main buildings within the fort are the Dīwān-i-Ām (hall of public audience) the Dīwān-i-Khās (hall of the selective audience), the Hamām (bathroom set), the personal mosque of Aurangzeb, Motī Masjid (Pearl Mosque) and Mumtāz Mahal.
Golconda Fort, originally a mud fort founded by the Kākatiyā dynasty of Warangal during the 13th century, was later reconstructed into a massive fort by various Qutb Shahi rulers during the 16th century, on the outskirts of Hyderabad.
The fort, on an isolated granite hill, rises about 120 m above the surrounding plain. The contours of the fort blend with those of the hill. Nowadays the ruins have a desolate majesty amid an arid plain.
The fort has eight gates (darwāzās), the main gate being Fateh Darwāzā (Gate of Victory). The door is 4 m wide and almost 8 m high and studded with steel spikes to protect it from charging elephants.
The fort also includes a palace, a mosque, a parade ground, and an armory among many other buildings. The famous Srirangapatna fort, also called Tipu’s palace, in Mysore, Karnataka, was built in 1537 in Indo-Islamic style. This magnificent fort is considered to be the second toughest fort in India.
It has a palace, Lāl Mahal, which was the then residence of the most audacious king of Mysore, Tipu Sultan. The fort was built on a double-wall defense system and has four entrances, namely Delhi, Bangalore, Mysore, and Water and Elephant gates.
Most of these forts had ingenious water structures designed for harvesting and storage, including step-wells, elaborate reservoirs, and channels. (See module Other Technologies for more details.)
How to Build Build Your Own House? A Step-by-Step Guide
This is NOT Just a Quick Guide. This is a Practical Step-by-Step Guide. The Only Complete Detailed Online Free Self Build The AZ of Building Your Own Home Instructions Manual.
Building a House IN 2022, With no Experience
This is a guide for those who want to build their place without any prior experience whatsoever. Building your own home is a long yet existing process where you would have complete control over the building processes.
There are many benefits to building your own home, other than saving a huge amount of money. You could also work with an architect to help you out throughout the whole process.
We teach you everything you need to know about the design and construction phases process of building your own special house.
How to Build a House for Free? List of Things You Need to Build a House
Hello, I’m a professional builder and team member of architectureCourses.org. This section is dedicated to people who want to build their own houses.
I’ll be teaching you in detail how house construction works free of charge. I’ll explain everything you need to know about building new houses and also talk about how to build your own home.
You will feel much more informed when building your own home after reading the entire lessons provided in this section.
Table of Content:
Home Finishes and Exterior
Framing & Vents
Building an Eco-Friendly House
House Green Building Materials
Features to Consider When Building a New Home 2022
Smart Home Building Systems
Overview: Building Your Own Home: a Step-by-Step Guide
Introductory House Building Core Courses:
How to Build Your Own House – This is an introduction
Beginners Guide: How to Build Your Own Dream Home
Welcome building enthusiasts! On this free online course platform, you will find a host of information dedicated to wood-frame construction and the basic “how-to’s” on wood-frame design and home building.
Here, you can read about the ideas surrounding the wood-frame building and Healthy Housing principles. With this knowledge, you will learn how to properly use wood-frame housing technology to build your dream house.
Custom House Design: How to Build a New Home
While learning about the concepts and ideologies surrounding wood-frame building and construction, we will also discuss tools on how to build homes that utilize green designs that incorporate sustainability concepts.
Through these pages and tutorials, you will find practical methods and tools that explain these concepts, therefore helping you translate them into reality when planning the design of your building.
What are the Requirements for Building a House?
As you read through this website, you will develop an overall understanding of the steps and processes that go into wood-frame building and house building.
We recommend that you quickly read through each of the titles and topics to get an overview of the building process. Thereafter, we suggest that you go through each topic in more depth.
However, if you are looking for only a specific topic, you will find that each section is filled with great detail and information that can help answer your questions on how to build a home or other wood-framed building.
House Construction and Building Steps With Pictures
Each section explains the practical, environmental, and technical aspects of wood-frame building construction. As a builder and designer, you must consult your local building departments, suppliers, traders, and city by-laws when designing and building a house before beginning any construction process.
Laws and codes vary from region to region and so it is imperative that during the planning phase (and while using this website as a “how-to” guide) that you take all of these elements into consideration.
What is the Most Important Part When Building a House?
As a builder, you should also reference the codes of standards that discuss housing in your jurisdiction to ensure you are meeting your city’s requirements.
This is the most important part when building a house, otherwise, you will face endless difficulties.
Tips for Building a House with a Builder
Also, if you decide to hire a builder to help you out building the house, you can use this guide to your advantage. Understanding the construction methods and phases will greatly help you make informed decisions.
No builder will care as much as you about getting a perfect result. Thus, knowing what you are doing will benefit you in many ways and will save you a lot of money. We will provide tips for building a house with a builder.
All measurements on this website contain imperial and metric units.
Your feedback is always appreciated. Feel free to leave us a message if you have a comment or suggestion!
Cost To Build A New Home
House Building Phase 1 – Finances and Foundations – Before You Begin!
What are the 5 stages of building a house?
Small details when building a house are very important. House building stages’ time frame varies depending on many factors. The building process can take longer than anticipated if not planned appropriately.
All stages of construction must be appropriately planned and coordinated with the understanding that unexpected events will occur that are difficult to foresee.
Developing a contingency plan for “what if” situations can also be helpful in emergencies. It is best to think of these contingency plans during the initial planning stage when you are thinking about finances, and during the foundations and framing construction phase.
House Building Stage 1 – Pre Construction – Finances and Permits
What are the financial steps to building a house? The amount of time spent on this phase varies greatly depending on the country, city, and district you are living in. This is because during this phase you must:
How to Build Your Own House the Right Way?
Develop a full set of plans that take into consideration zoning and building bylaws
Seek out financing with an estimate of the total cost for the home or building, and
Obtain the proper approvals and permits The time it takes for all of these items depends on your place of residence and your accessibility to information and services.
You should also determine how you will have temporary power access at your site, which can add to the timeline. Also, you should figure out the approximate cost to build a new home during this phase.
Stage 2 of Building Construction:
Do you have land and you want to build on it, and wondering where to start? We will show you the required and recommended steps to build a house on your land.
Steps to Building a House on Land
Before beginning any construction we advise that you survey the land to look over property lines so that you are properly observing the by-laws in your area.
Once this has been done, you can begin to set out the layout of your building and decide on how you will build your house. Usually, the layout can be completed in one day given that property boundaries are already in place.
Site planning (making a strategic plan to take advantage of weather conditions, managing drainage, etc.) takes more time and effort.
In cases where you are not experienced in observing the land, you can hire a land surveyor to speed up the process and to ensure you are not missing any important variables in creating the plan on how to build your structure on the property.
An accurate layout of the excavation for the placement and depth of the foundation must be done at this stage of the building process which is a very critical step.
Stage 3 of Construction: Excavation and Footings
To begin this phase, ensure you have the proper equipment, and personnel and that you have full access to the site you will build on. If all of these items are in place, this typically takes only 1 day.
Once completed, you will need an additional few days to trench for rough-in services, form and pour footings, remove the footing framework, layout the foundation walls and columns, and prepare the construction of the foundations.
Stage 4 of Construction: Backfill, Drainage, and Foundations
Account for a few days during this stage of your home building plan for the installation of foundations. This is typically done by a skilled sub-trade.
Also at this point, you will want to include curing concrete and removing formwork. It also takes a few more days to complete the dampproofing, foundation drainage systems, and backfill.
By storing excavation material and topsoil properly, you can eliminate the need to bring in fill and topsoil for backfilling.
Note that if your site is located in an underserviced area, extra work may need to go into measures for foundation drainage.
Stage 5 of Construction of the House:
Framing Ensure that there anthe adis equate temporary power supply for all tools and equipment to make this stage of building as easy as possible.
Arrangements will also need to be made with carpentry sub-trades to help with constructing different elements at this stage.
Generally, the building of stairs or the installation of pre-manufactured stairs, and the installation of a chimney are also included in this stage.
Given that there is a proper power supply the entire stage should only take approximately 2 weeks.
You should also be able to complete the framing and can install roofing (which is essential for protection from weather conditions during the rest of your building stages).
How Do You Build a Good House?
Now that the foundation for building your own house is established, you can move ahead to the next phase of construction.
We found that breaking down the construction into these phases really helped us get organized and it also allowed us to create a schedule to follow.
Next, you will learn about how to install windows, doors, plumbing, heating, and electrical, and you will also learn about how to complete the final exterior finishes.
New House Interior Finishes
House Building Phase 2 Stage 1
House Building Installing Doors and Windows
Installing doors and windows is typically done after framing is completed and it includes flashing and installing locks and other related hardware.
We found that putting in the doors after the framing is done allows you to see things in a more finished fashion, which sometimes might motivate you to change your mind about the windows and doors you will use.
Usually, this takes a few days to one week. Carpentry work that needs to be done includes jamb extensions and trim. Interior air sealing of gaps around the doors and windows can be done by a skilled contractor at this point as well.
House Building Stage 2
Electrical Rough-in, Plumbing, HVAC (heating, ventilation, and air conditioning)
Plumbing, heating, and electrical rough-in all occur after the framing is complete and takes approximately 2 weeks when a licensed electrician and team are hired to complete the work.
Electrical and communication lines such as computer, TV cable, and telephones lines along with alarms are roughed-in.
The planning phase of this stage can take over 30 hours and what is great is that you can customize the different layouts to fit your needs.
If you decide to do any of the electrical rough-in yourself, double the time it would take a licensed electrician to do it. There are a variety of wiring codes and rules you must follow exactly and so studying this can take a while.
Tubs, bathing, and shower enclosures are installed and plumbing is brought from the service connections. Plumbers will typically run all of the sewer pipes that will be covered by concrete during the pouring of the basement floor.
This can take up to one day. Ducts are put into place for exhaust fans and the furnace is put into place. Rough-in for the HVAC takes approximately 3 days.
During this time, we ran the gas lines to different areas in the house (such as the fireplace, kitchen, and laundry room).
Stage 3 – Exterior Finishes, Insulation, Air and Vapour Barriers
When installing insulation it is important to protect it from possible moisture damage which can be caused by wind-driven rain.
Installing air and vapor barriers is also done during this time and can be combined with detailing around penetrations, fixtures, and outlets.
The exterior finishing stage includes stucco, brick, and siding in addition to soffit, fascia, eavestroughing, down-sprouts and window, and door caulking. Staining, painting, exterior trim, and millwork are also done during this stage.
The length of time to complete this stage ranges from 1 – to 2 weeks depending on the type of finish that will be used on your building.
House Building Phase 3 | Stage 1
Building a House: Interior Finishing
This stage takes approximately two weeks when installing the standard finishes but can take longer when more complicated finishes are selected for your building use.
We began this step by putting in the ceilings, walls, and floor finishes. Once these items were completed and were prepared for painting and varnishing, we completed the other carpentry work such as finishes around interior doors, handrails, frames, and trim.
House Building Phase 3 | Stage 2: Fixtures, Cabinets, Paint
It will take approximately two weeks to complete this stage. Beginning with the interior painting is important, as it will ensure you are avoiding staining items such as your cabinets and fixtures.
We found it most helpful to have the color selection predetermined, with some backup choices on hand just in case we changed our minds once we saw the house coming together.
The color choices you make at this stage will stay with you for a long time, so be sure to consult your designer to select a pallet that is warm and welcoming.
Once the painting is done, the cabinets can be installed. Major equipment connections, such as furnaces, water heaters, stoves, clothes dryers, etc.
are connected during this time. Final fixtures for plumbing, electrical finishes, light fixtures, and other fixtures are also installed.
At this point, some decide to install appliances such as dishwashers and refrigerators. Ultimately, in the end, all final installations must be inspected and the trade workers should ensure everything is working properly.
If at this point anything is not working properly, be sure to remedy the issue immediately. You do not want to have to go back and deal with an item when you’re ready to move it.
Also, make sure at this point that there is clean-up by all the workers.
Phase 3 | Stage 3 Exterior: New House Landscaping
This final and closing stage on how to build your home will take approximately one week in total (but of course, if you want something extravagant it will take more time).
We recommend having a long-term landscaping plan – put the basics in first, then after you move in you can incorporate more detail and personality.
This stage can be seen as the final touch to finishing your house building. Items such as fences, decks, walkways, steps, driveways, gardens, shrubs, and trees are put into place.
This concludes the summary of the construction phases on how to build your own house. We hope that the breakdown we provided helps you understand the general flow of construction and how much time each stage will take.
More detail for each of the phases and stages is found in our in-depth modules on the wood-frame building.
You can scroll through each of the topic titles for clear detail on how to proceed with each of the construction phases.
Practical Guides: All of the above as we mentioned was a quick overview. Here are the Practical Guides:
Beginning Construction: So How to Build Your Dream House?
As we began to design our home and think about the house-building process for our dream home, we realized that there are so many different ways to set the course of your home-building plan.
When reading about the different ways, it can seem like creating a plan about how to build your own home is intimidating and difficult.
However, what we found was that if you break the process down into sequential steps, the procedure becomes easy and manageable.
We started our building project as do-it-yourself entrepreneurs, and because of this, we had to do some intensive research into the design and building process for our house.
Learning about the process on how to build your own home can be a valuable learning experience, and here we will share with you what we learned during the process.
There is no one “typical” house construction process for a dream home and there are a variety of factors that must be considered.
Ask yourself the following questions to begin:
Will I use a wood-frame structure? (if you are on this website, the answer is YES!)
Will this be a single house or a subdivision?
How many people and resources will I need for labor?
What is the availability of materials for what I want to build?
What will the weather conditions be like during the construction phase?
What will the site conditions be like?
Because we are teaching you about wood-frame building, the planning process will be centered on the wood-frame approach and its appropriate techniques.
Additionally, we will teach you what we learned when we built our 3-bedroom home (but of course, if you are going for a 2-bedroom instead the tutorials are still applicable to you).
The very basics will be outlined here – for add-ons such as sunrooms, swimming pools, etc, you will need to visit our other pages for instructions and guidance.
How Long Does It Take to Build My Own House?
Typically, it takes about 16 weeks to build the wood-frame house structure from start to finish, assuming regular labor and minimal delays.
This does NOT include the planning and design process on how to build your house, and this is assuming it is an average 2-3 bedroom dwelling.
For larger, more elaborate buildings, 20 weeks or more is needed. For smaller dwellings, the time is cut down to 8 – 10 weeks.
When is the Best Time to Build Your Own House, & Begin construction?
Based on our experience, setting aside late spring, all of summer, and part of the fall is ideal for the construction phase of your house building.
However, it is still possible to build during other times of the year with proper planning and equipment.
There are delays you must take into consideration when making a timeline on how to build your home and when developing your construction process:
Obtain building permits – have as many in place as possible when beginning.
Materials supplies – is there a shortage or are the supplies easily accessible?
Specialized structures and orders – if you are planning on having custom materials/designs, this also adds to the timeline.
Unpredictable weather changes and patterns
Labor availability or shortage
Residential Building Codes
Phase 1: Permits and Inspections
How Do I Find My Local Building Code?
Before even beginning to think about house plans and related design elements you must first ensure that the property is zoned for residential use.
Depending on the area you have selected to purchase your land, there are a variety of different development restrictions, regulations, and specifications that need to be considered before planning your home development.
As we mentioned before, the restrictions and rules, and the amount of time it takes to go through this process, vary greatly from region to region, and sometimes even from neighborhood to neighborhood.
Keep in mind that although there can be variations from region to region most regions still do stick to national building codes as a basis and so it is a good starting point.
As first-time self-builders and designers, we found the process to be extremely time-consuming and complicated, but it is doable if you remain focused on the task and do not feel discouraged when you reach an obstacle.
Once you have done your homework and have created the plan, you can take it to an examiner who will verify if what you have designed adheres to code requirements.
And most importantly, make sure you have drawn your plans to scale and provide as much detail and description as possible so that the examiner can see that you have taken into consideration building codes and regulations.
Important Insider Tips for How to Choose an Architect, Interior Designer, or a Home Designer
When shopping for a house architect/designer/planner look for someone who has experience planning and designing in the area you purchased your loss.
This will ensure that you are bringing someone in with experience and someone familiar with the relevant building codes and regulations. This can save you a lot of time.
However, don’t rely entirely on the designer. Do your research so you can cover all bases. All of the specifications and plans should be done by a trained and experienced designer.
Although it might be costly at first, in the long run, it will save you time and money because it will help to minimize unforeseen problems and missed items.
As the self-builder and planner of your home, keep in mind that all of the inspection and approval regulations are there to ensure you are building a safe and healthy home.
Properly scheduling inspections will help you avoid delays and problems. When trying to schedule an inspection make sure you have studied what work needs to be completed before the inspector comes, and how long it will take for them to visit you to go through the inspection.
We have a complete guide as well on how to design your own house if you wish to also design it yourself.
The 5 Steps to Building a House Checklist:
The following is a useful summary that describes what a good building plan will have:
A design plan that uses building codes and regulations as the basis; thereafter you can build on the rules.
Drawings and sketches that are to scale.
Details and descriptions that contain the minimum required information that is needed by your building department.
Completed forms and registration/inspection requirements (where applicable).
Information that provides to suppliers and sub-trades enough detail so that they can properly supply and install equipment and materials.
If you follow all of the above and have studied the regulations of your building department a permit is certain to be granted.
House Building Excavation For Construction
Phase 1: Excavation and Plot Lines:
When preparing for the excavation for construction, be sure to check with utility companies that service the area to see if the digging will interrupt or disrupt any buried services.
Accidentally cutting into power lines, gas lines, telephone lines, etc can be very expensive and you can even cause severe injury.
Moreover, when deciding where you will place your house on the land you need to check with the municipality for minimum setback and side yard requirements.
Clear the site so you can be certain that the perimeter of the house is visible and mark the perimeter by following the corners of the lot.
These corners will be the reference point for your house lines and excavation work. When we wanted to start setting the measurements and lines of the house we did two main things.
We used something called the triangulation method to measure the squareness of building corners.
We marked the excavation area.
The corners of our house were marked with small wooden spikes and additional marks were made if the spikes were lost during excavation (our team just spray painted the ground with fluorescent paint).
Something to keep in mind is that typically, excavations are done 600 to 700 mm wider than the corners of the house (24-48 inches) so that there is extra space for installing the formwork, applying to dampproof, installing the exterior insulation, and placing the drain tile.
Here is a great money-saving tip. All the topsoil that is on the area marked for excavation can be stripped, stored, and reused at a later date. All other soil that is dug up through the excavation is usually taken away.
Healthy Housing Tip: When giving thought to how you can minimize environmental impacts and also how you can save energy, give consideration to environmental elements such as solar access, wind effects, and water runoff when deciding where you will place the house on the lot.
Top 5 Useful Home Building Tips:
High-performance windows give good natural lighting and can save energy while providing a beautiful view.
Orient the house in such a way that you can use wind as natural ventilation.
Try to follow natural water runoff patterns.
Collect rainwater and use it to water gardens and wash exterior items.
Passive solar heating can be taken advantage of when you orient the house 14 degrees west of south and 20 degrees east of south.
Now comes the fun part – starting the excavation with the heavy-duty equipment! Most likely the builders will use either a bulldozer or power shovel.
How deep you go for the excavation and the exact elevation of the foundation will depend on the elevation of the street, sewer, and water services, the shape of the lot, and the level of the finished grade around the house.
Also, in terms of your house itself, the amount of headroom you want in your basement and the elevation of the floor above the grade impact how deep the excavation will be.
Headroom for the basement can be anywhere between 6 ft 5 in (1.95 m) to 7 in (2 m), but if it is used as a living space then the minimum headroom should be 7 ft 7 in (2.3 m).
Also, make sure that the excavation does not impact the foundations of surrounding homes. If the excavation is going to be done in the winter, make sure to protect it because building on frozen soil can create many expensive and difficult problems.
House Placement: House Elevation Design
Simple House Front Elevation Designs for Single Floor:
This is for the normal house front elevation designs. We use front elevation designs for small houses as an example. However, this is also good for double floor normal and custom house front elevation designs.
Phase 1: House Placement
Now that the excavation is complete, you can move on to the house elevation design and place the lines and elevation for the footings and foundation. This is done by using the previously marked locations for the foundation walls.
Place three wooden spikes at least 4 ft (1.2 m) beyond the lines of excavation for each corner, which you can then use to place the batter boards. Nail the boards horizontally and ensure that the tops of the boards are level and at the same elevation.
Next, place the stout string across the tops of opposite boards at two corners and adjust the string so that it follows exactly the line of the outside edge of the foundation.
The building corners need to be square to move along with construction. There are two methods to determine this.
Method one is called triangulation. With this method, you measure a distance in multiples of 12 in. (300 mm) along one side of the corner. You then measure the same number in multiples of 16 in. (400 mm) along the adjacent side. The hypotenuse, or the diagonal, should have an equal number of multiples of 20 in. (500 mm) when the corner is square.
With the second method, you simply measure the diagonals, and if the diagonals are equal, the building corners are square.
Phase 1: Concrete Works, Mixing Concrete On-Site
If mixing concrete must be done on-site you need to use aggregate and water that is clean and absent of any organic material or other substances that can damage the concrete.
When adding air-entraining admixture it must be done according to the manufacturer’s recommendations.
When in doubt speak with the manufacturer about mixing portions and be sure to specify the user. Too much admixture will decrease the strength of the concrete and using admixtures should only be done when you are using a motorized mixer.
Concrete works for building your own house should be well planned and prepared properly since this will be your foundation.
Depending on which part of the home you are using the concrete for, you would need different psi strengths. We used ready-mixed concrete for our concrete work and this can be purchased at most locations.
When ordering concrete for foundation walls, interior slabs, and footings you need to specify that a minimum strength of 2200 psi (MPa) is needed.
For driveways, exterior steps, carport floors, and garage floors a minimum of 3600 psi (25 MPa) of air-entrained concrete is needed (air-entrained refers to the introduction of air bubbles into the concrete mixture to increase durability).
For these purposes, the air-entrained concrete must be between 5 to 8 percent. The system of minute air bubbles will make the concrete more workable and more easily placed than plain concrete and will also be more protected from frost.
For all exterior concrete work, it is necessary to use air-entrained concrete, and it is also recommended for other applications to improve workability and durability.
Concrete works: Placing Concrete
Concrete works and placement begin with using forms to properly place the concrete. If you cannot access all points of the forms you can use a wheelbarrow, buggies, or chute to move concrete to all points in the form.
When placing concrete into forms ensure that the concrete does not fall into the forms from a height of more than 5 ft, as this will cause the concrete to segregate.
Concrete should be put into the forms continuously in horizontal lifts no more than 12 to 18 inches (300 to 450 mm). When placing the concrete from a higher drop, use a vertical pipe to properly pour the mixed concrete.
When depositing the concrete it is important to remember that the concrete should be spread out and leveled by raking or shoveling, rather than pouring the concrete into a pile.
We used pumping to place our concrete, but sometimes this equipment is not available on site. In any event, we found it was easier to use pumping so we recommend having this equipment on site.
A vibrator can be used to consolidate the concrete once the placement has been done. Next, you need to uniformly compact the concrete by using tamping hand tools (such as puddling sticks), or by a vibrator (which was the best choice based on our experience).
Note: concrete operations should not take place when it is at or below 41 °F (5°C), or when you expect the weather to take a turn in that direction within 24 hours.
The ideal temperature range is between 50 °F (10°C) and 77 °F 25°C) for mixing and placement. Additionally, the concrete must be maintained at a temperature of no less than 50 °F (10°C) for at least 72 hours while curing.
This can be accomplished by mixing the concrete with heated water. Any snow or ice should be removed from the framework and the concrete should not be placed against frozen soil.
building a house part 2
building a house part 2
What is Concrete Footing in the Construction of the House?
Here we talk about concrete footing foundation, and we cover matters and details of a strip foundation, types of footing, strip footing, a slab of concrete cost, isolated footing, strap footing, concrete piers, pad footing, raft footing, and column footing, etc.
New House Footings
Phase 1: What Are the Different Kinds of House Footings?
You should understand some important principles such as what are the different types of foundations. What is the strongest foundation for a house? What are the three types of foundations?
There are several types and sizes of footings to choose from and the one that you decide to use depends on the soil conditions, and how far down you need to go below the ground to protect from frost.
Note that you can protect against frost by also using good drainage around the foundation, which guides the water away from the building.
Selecting and placing the footings for your home is essential because the footings receive the house load through posts or foundation walls, which are then transmitted to the soil.
When we placed the footings, we made sure that the distance between the footing base and the finished grade was at least the depth of any anticipated frost penetration. See the diagram below for the minimum depths for different soil conditions.
Building code requirements for your region should be consulted when preparing to place footings. Before we started with our footings we talked to our local building official to discuss local soil conditions; that way we could plan what we needed more accurately.
Foundation Footings: Wall Footings
Here we talk about column footings in the home building process in detail. Do we answer some questions such as what are footings for walls?
How deep should a footing be for a wall? Where should wall footing be placed? How do you build a wall footing?
What Determines Wall Footing Size and Thickness?
Side forms should be used for footings unless the soil conditions and design allow for sharply cut trenches. When measuring the distance for wall footing placement, it is important to make sure that the footings project beyond each side of the wall by at least 4 in.
(100 mm), with a thickness of no less than the projection beyond the wall. Footings should never be less than 4 in. (100 mm) thick.
In cases where a preserved wood foundation is being used, continuous wood footings are usually more practical and economical.
Before going ahead with finalizing the footings, you should check to see if the excavation is even. If you find that it is not and that in some places the excavation is too deep, a compacted granular mat can be used to level it. Note that excavated material should never be used as a base.
In our case, the soil had a low load-bearing capacity and so we had to use wider reinforced footings. Using a key at the top of the footings was recommended by our builder.
Keys help the foundation wall resist lateral pressures from the earth pushing against it. Bring the idea up to your builders to see how it can work into the plan. Any pipe tranches that are directly under wall footings need to be backfilled with concrete.
New House Construction Column Footings
We must understand the fundamentals of building construction basics such as how do you make column footings? How deep do footings need to be for a column? What is the minimum size of column footing? And how do you find the column footing size?
We make it easy for you by providing column footing detail, footing size for columns, and reinforcement details. We explain all that with colfootingsting design examples such as detailed drawings and plans.
You should have a better idea at the end about all kinds of Column Footing such as simple footing, combined, rectangular, and isolated column footing.
These footings can vary in size depending on the allowable soil pressure and the load they support. Footings should be placed so that the members they support are centered. Common sized include:
One-story house: 4.3 sq. ft. (0.4 m2) (about 25 x 24 in. (640 x 640 mm))
Two-story house: 8 sq. ft. (0.75 m2)(34 x 34 in.)(870 x 870 mm)).
** A minimum thickness of 4 in. (100 mm).
Stepped Footings Foundation
So what is step footing in construction? And what is used for? How do you make a step up footing? What are the stepped footing building requirements and regulations? What is the maximum height of a stepped footing step?
Stepped Footing Detail
Stepped footings are needed when there is unstable soil, where there is a steeply sloping site, and in some cases, they are used with split-level houses.
The vertical part of the step should be placed at the same time as the footing. The bottom is always placed on undisturbed so or compacted granular fill.
Sometimes, where there is a very steep slope, more than one step is needed. The vertical connection between footings at the step should be of concrete at least 6 in. (150 mm) thick, and the same width as the footings.
The House Foundation 101:
What part of the house is the foundation? What are the foundation requirements? What is the strongest foundation for a house?
Phase 1: Foundations: How to Build the Foundation of a House?
Most often, materials such as concrete blocks, preserved wood, cast-in-place concrete, or steel foundations are used for foundation building. The foundation is the stronghold of the house; it carries the floor, wall, roof, and other building loads, which include weight from the occupants and other external weights such as snow.
It is wise to consult with local builders to see what practices they used since you should use proven methods when creating the foundation. At times, unstable soils that you come across can change the construction plan for your foundation.
What Are the Two Parts of the House Foundation?
Preparing the formwork for the walls is a very important step. It must be well-braced, tight, and tied in a way so that it can withstand the pressure of the concrete.
You can either build formwork from lumber or plywood with the appropriate framing members (built-in sections) or use reusable forms.
Reusable forms are made of plywood or steel. We used steel form ties to hold the two sides of the framework together, and once the concrete was set, we could break off the ties.
Steel ties and separators were also used to hold the forms together and to maintain the width needed. If you decide to use wood spacer blocks, you need to remove them from the concrete.
There are also new types of products being manufactured in the USA, and Canada that can ease the process of foundation building.
These new advances make it easy to work with formwork and insulation for concrete walls and can eliminate steps from the process when building your own house.
What is the Standard Size of Foundation?
The thickness we used for our foundation wall was 6 in. (150 mm) but the thickness can vary depending on the depth of the foundation below grade.
Typical thickness ranges from 6 to 12 in. (150 mm – 300 mm). When working with the formwork for drainage, it is best to use a coarse granular mat or crushed stone around the perimeter and under the basement slab.
Our builder spread the layer of stone around the footings in advance so that there was a dry, clean surface to work on.
Once the concrete has set and acquired enough strength to support the loads, you can remove the forms. Typically, this takes about 2 days but one week is ideal especially when it is cold outside.
When you remove the forms, all of the recesses and holes from the form ties have to be sealed with dampproofing material or cement mortar.
At times, uncontrolled cracking can occur in the concrete slabs and walls. To help prevent this, you can use steel reinforced rods or vertical control joints that are properly placed to help minimize the cracks.
When using control joints, put them in places where there is natural weakness (such as planes of windows, doors, etc.).
Preserved Wood Foundations
Wood foundations are best suited for low-rise dwellings or multiple dwellings. Make sure that the wood you use has been properly treated; look for a certification mark showing the material was treated according to local certifications.
The size, species, and grade of studs and thickness of plywood depend on stud spacing and backfill height, and the number of stories that the house will have.
Typically, when using a wood foundation to build your home, the construction follows the same methods used in house framing with some added bracing requirements.
The foundation uses pressure-treated wood footings with pressure-treated bottom and top plates. All of the wood used in the foundation must be pressure treated that use chemical preservatives by your national standards.
Using properly treated wood ensures that the wood is highly resistant to decay organisms and insects.
Basement Slab: How to Floor a Basement
Phase 1: Slabs
When creating a basement floor slab certain requirements need to be met and some steps need to be followed in order.
When we were preparing our plans for the slabs, we also made sure to ventilate the basement since this allows moisture (that is created when curing the concrete) to escape.
Concrete is typically used for basement floor slabs and should be put in after the roof construction is done, the basement floor drain is in place, water and sewer lines are installed and the building is enclosed.
The slab should be sloped towards the floor drain and made to be at least 3 in. (75 mm) thick.
We built our own home and constructed the basement slab, we first installed the sewer lines. Next, we placed about 4 in. (100 mm) of gravel or crushed rock under the slab to prevent moisture from getting to the slab from the ground.
Using a sheet of polyethylene sheet, create a layer of 6 mils (0.15 mm) below the slab to dampproof the floor.
At times, there can be slight movement of the slab due to shrinkage during the drying process. You can use apre-molded joint filler to correct this.
Once the slab concrete is in place, you need to check for proper elevation. Curing should happen for at least 5 days at an air temperature of 70°F (21°C). Slabs on the ground are prepared almost the same way as basement slabs
New Construction Foundation Waterproofing
How to Build House Waterproofing Foundations? What is the best way to waterproof concrete?
Phase 1: Waterproofing and Dampproofing
How do you seal the foundation of a house? While beginning to plan for waterproofing and dampproofing, foundation drainage needs to be planned as well.
Typically, you can use drain tile to accomplish this. You will need to provide drainage in most areas around the foundations but not where there is natural, free-draining soil. Any subsurface water needs to be drained away to prevent damp basements and wet floors.
Drain tile needs to be connected with a joint pipe to a storm sewer, or another outlet where the water can be drained properly.
If this is not done properly, you will be left with poor drainage, which will then lead to water leaking into the basement.
When laying the tile, place it on solid and undisturbed soil around the footings, and needs to be covered with a minimum of 6 in. (150 mm) of coarse, clean gravel and crushed rock.
Both waterproofing and dampproofing work to combat moistures of different kinds, and they both work in different ways for different parts of the house.
Waterproofing is done during the house-building phase to help deal with severe water problems and is only needed for foundations that will be exposed to hydrostatic pressures.
If you know your home will need to incorporate some waterproofing, we recommend going to an expert, since qualified professionals will know best how to work with different water pressures.
Dampproofing foundations are done to control moisture in the soil that can move into the foundation and are also done to control the movement of moisture from concrete into interior wood frames.
Common approaches to dampproofing include polyethylene, sheet material, or a heavy coat of bituminous material. Any foundations that are waterproofed don’t need to be dampproofed; this is a great money-saving tip since it can be easy to be over careful and do both.
Any concrete that is below grade needs to be damp proofed on the exterior surface starting from the footings, all the way to the finish grade line.
Also, it is wise to check and see if the soil around the foundation is poorly drained. If this is the case, waterproofing is needed. We decided to add some additional moisture protection by also using special dense glass-fiber insulation.
Framing and Ventilation: Wood Frame House Construction
What are the three types of frame construction? How do you make a wooden frame? What wood is used for framing? What are the basic components of a wood-frame structure?
What are the wood frame construction types, and what are wood frame construction materials? What are wood frame construction advantages and disadvantages?
Phase 1: House Framing and Ventilation
Wood frame wall construction details:
There are two methods you can use to construct a wood-frame house. We used the most common method, which is the Platform method.
It is important to note that the amount of time it will take for you to complete the framing for your home will depend greatly on the weather conditions.
Unpredictable weather conditions can delay your schedule for days and weeks, so be prepared to adjust your plans.
The structural shell of your home will need to be put up, and this shell consists of the foundation, floors, walls, and roof.
Once these are in place, you can start to think about the level of insulation you will use in the different parts of the structural shell, since framing dimensions will need to be adjusted depending on your needs. Below is some more information about the two methods used:
Balloon Method: With this method, the studs used for the exterior and interior walls are, which means that site assembly is not easy.
Platform Method: With this method, the floor is built separately from the walls, which means you can have a sturdy solid surface to work off of. This makes putting up the walls and partitions easier. Also, the studs are only one story high, which means that calls can be easily premade or put together on the subfloor, and erected one story at a time.
After we used the platform method for your shell framing, we then started our floor framing, which used headers, sills, joists, and beams.
We made sure to have seasoned lumber for this since we want to control moisture as much as possible. You should check with your building codes to see what moisture content is acceptable for the lumber you will use with your floor frames.
Wood Frame Construction Diagram
When constructing the wall frames, this will include creating the vertical and horizontal members for exterior walls and interior partitions, also known as studs.
These studs are the nailing base for all covering materials and support of the upper floors, ceiling, and roof. Roofs can either be flat or pitched, and the slope of the roof varies depending on the house design.
Pitched roofs will typically have more of a slope, whereas flat roofs will have less of a slope. A roof slope of 1:1 fits with our healthy housing principles.
No matter which roof type you will use, ventilation needs to be incorporated into the plan. Proper insulation needs to be provided in the roof space above the insulation.
If water or moisture builds up in spaces in the roof, it can lead to damage in areas where the moisture accumulates. This is especially during cold weather.
The size of the vent you will choose depends on the slope of your roof and the way the roof is constructed. In any case, the vents should be evenly distributed on all sides of the building.
Part 2: Home Construction Mid-Stage
Constructing Your Dream House
Building a Home Phase 3:
Phase 2: Construction Mid-Stage
If you have reached this stage, congratulations!
When you are working to build your own home, the experience can become overwhelming at times. But to have the ability to custom design and choose your home layout and building structures makes it all worthwhile.
I know that once we reached this stage, we had already dealt with some delays, mainly because of unpredictable weather conditions. But the team we chose was very dedicated and adjusted well to the changes in plans.
This is why it was so important to make sure you chose a team that is hard-working, flexible, and dedicated to the job. It is worth it to spend the time to choose the best possible fit for your team when you decide to build your own house.
Let’s highlight all the things you have accomplished up until this point, so you can pat yourself on the back and see how far you have come. When we reached this phase, we had to pause and take everything in.
At this point, you should have completed the following important steps when building your home:
Getting your finances and permits in order – During this phase, you should have developed your building plan and made sure you have your money plan as well. Approval and permits would have also been put in order before the building process can begin
Create the building layout – Here, you establish the layout of the house, and look at the property line. You also discuss site planning with your team.
Excavation and footings – At this stage, you should begin the excavation, and make sure you have the proper equipment to do so.
Backfill and foundations – This is the base of your home and the heart of the construction process. Making sure that you have taken your time during this stage is essential.
Framing – Here, during the last stage of phase 1, you would have completed your framing for the shell, floor, roof, and walls.
Alright, now we move on to the next exciting phase of your soon-to-be-completed dream home! Take a step back, enjoy what you have done so far, and continue your hard work.
Installing House Windows
Phase 2: Windows
Installing House Windows and Types of House Windows
As we planned the design of our home, we chose certain doors and windows that would fit with the design theme of our home, but we also thought about efficiency and practicality.
The architect we worked with was very good and helped us choose aesthetically pleasing designs, and that were also environmentally sound to use.
Remember, windows and doors are more than just openings into the outside world, they also play an important role in several systems in the home.
They need to fit nicely with the functionality of the home, there needs to be enough space for movement and use, and it needs to go with the decor.
When building a wood-frame house, you also need to select the appropriate types and make sure they are installed properly.
Any doors or windows that are of poor quality will decrease energy conservation, which will then leave you with high energy bills. This can also happen if a high-quality door or window is not installed properly.
You will also want to think about how durable the items are, as well as how high maintenance they will be for you as a homeowner.
Different styles have different advantages and disadvantages, all of which need to be considered when building your own home.
One of the most important things we thought about when we chose our windows and doors was how energy efficient they were.
We also thought about how they could contribute to the natural light and ventilation of the home. And, of course, we thought about security and safety.
We asked ourselves, how hard would it be for someone to break into the home and how accessible are the doors and windows from the outside?
Also, windows are seen as a means to escape in the case of danger, and so they need to be designed in a way that the occupants can leave when there is a disaster.
Depending on the room, you will need different window and door sizes and designs. Some rooms will need larger windows for increased natural light, and it is common practice to have at least 10 percent of the area in living rooms and dining rooms to be covered in windows.
For bedrooms and dens, it is usually 5 percent. Something interesting that we learned about windows is that they can be a fire hazard to surrounding properties.
We were told that fires can spread from window to window, which is why there are strict codes about how big the windows can be and what percent of the room they can occupy.
Window styles and Types:
Casement and awning windows
Horizontal and vertical slider windows
Single or double-hung windows
Egress window styles
Awning type window
Awning type steel casement windows
Swing type steel casement windows
Styles of Windows:
Old r classic window styles
French type sliding window
Modern window type
Installing Exterior Doors
Phase 2: Installing House Doors
Which Door is Best for the Exterior of the House?
One of the most important parts of occupant safety, which ties into the healthy housing principles, is related to home security for your house.
It is important to consider these when selecting your doors for purchase. Selecting a door and hardware for the door needs to have the appropriate amount of resistance to forced entry.
That being said, the doors, like the windows, add to the external aesthetics of the home and should also be selected to match your home design.
When selecting hardware for your door, it is better to go with the higher-end ones since they will last you longer and provide the best durability and resistance to forced entry.
There are standard codes that talk about the requirements for resistance under the National Building Code. The framing of the door also plays a role in resistance to forced entry.
Adding extra screws in the drywall around the door frame will add extra resistance, and blocks should be placed between and jamb of the door and the framing to increase resistance.
You can choose from 4 common materials for your door. Fiberglass, wood, steel, and plastic. Although the wood doors are naturally solid, the other materials often have inner and outer panels that are filled with insulation.
A common mistake that people is that they only consider the style and finish of the external doors, which we did not do.
You can have custom doors built, but it is more common to buy and use pre-hung manufactured units that are ready to be installed when they are delivered.
When you install a pre-manufactured door, follow the instructions as they are given, or else you can lose your warranty.
The most energy-efficient doors are the modern styles, whereas wooden doors are more traditional and have long-standing performance.
If you want a door with a window, it needs to be heat efficient and can also have tempered glass for added safety. The weather stripping around the door protects against air leakage, so be sure to check this out when you are selecting an exterior door.
Installing Decorative Trim and Fabric
Phase 2: Other Trims
Since these finishes will be on the exterior of your house, they need to be of good quality and should be able to resist weather and climate changes and harsh conditions.
Also, you should pick trim that allows for easy painting. The fasteners that you will use for the trim need to be corrosion-resistant and set in a coat so that they can last. Often, nails are puttied after a prime coat is used, which prevents rust.
Once the wall coverings are done, the team will begin to think about doing other exterior trims for your home. This includes exterior trims like window and door trims and soffits.
These trims are cut, fitted, and placed on-site and can be customized to the design of the building.
We already talked about windows, and here we will get into a little more about window finishing. Although windows are important for providing light and air in the home, windows are also part of the architectural home design.
So, when you choose the style, size, and design, also think about the kind of frames and trim you will use.
You can select a window frame and sash that is made of metal, fiberglass, wood, or plastic and can mix and match. This all plays into how the house will look and the exterior feel of the home.
We love to have a lot of natural light in our house, and because of this, we tried to have large areas of glazing.
But, there are rules and codes when you build your own house when it comes to window sizes, do check with your local codes before investing and designing.
One thing to remember is that more windows mean there is more heat loss, and if you have good trim this heat loss can be minimized but not eliminated.
Any kind of wood that is used for a window sash and frame needs to be treated so that decaying is decreased.
Any exterior trim for the window is typically attached to the window frame when the window is fabricated and is nailed to the studs. Any leftover space around the window frame is usually filled with insulation.
Exterior door frames will also need to be installed, and using hardwood increases durability. The door frame needs to be nailed well to the opening framework and the door sill needs to bear solidly on the floor framing.
Installing New House Indoor Stairs
Phase 2: Stairs & Wiring
Let’s learn about stairs and their types such as spiral stairways, circular stairways, wood stairways, steel stairways, and contemporary staircases.
Stairs are an important consideration when designing your home. There are two kinds of stairs, the main stairs, which are those stairs between finished areas, and those stairs that go to storage areas, laundry, and other smaller areas.
For our main stairs, we used more expensive materials and put more thought into the design and size; the other stairs to smaller areas of the house were not as fancy.
Stair guards are used to surrounding the openings to protect against falling over the edge and handrails are installed to help go up and down.
The recommended dimensions for the rise-to-run are a rise of 7 – 7.5 in. (180 to 190 mm) with a run of 9 ¾ to 10 ¼ in. (250 to 265 mm) with a minimum headroom of 6 ft. 6 in.
(1.95 m). There are special terms used in stair building, and below in the image are parts of the stairs:
Electrical wiring is done after the exterior wall sheathing and roof are done. At this stage, the wiring and boxes are installed for outlets, lights, and switches, all of which need to follow local codes and regulations. Insulation is typically put in after this.
The placement of outlets and boxes needs to be carefully planned before the house building begins. We spent countless hours with our architect thinking about what types of appliances and electronics we would use, and how we could implement an efficient and pleasing layout.
Any changes that are made after the house is built are VERY expensive.
One of the good things about using wood-frame housing is that you can find creative ways to hide a lot of the heating and plumbing systems.
When you are designing the framing for the house, especially the floor framing, be sure to consider the piping and ductwork that will need to be added later.
You will need to install the plumbing after the framing is done for it. There is a term called “roughing-in” which means that plumbing vents and drains, and hot and cold water piping is put in so that it can later be enclosed in the walls, ceilings, and floors.
There are many ways that the house can be heated, such as hot-water heating systems, electric systems, and single-space heaters, all of which can be easily installed in a wood-frame house.
We used an electric system in our house since it has a multi-control feature. Some of the most common ones used include forced warm-air, electric baseboards, and forced flow hot-water heating.
Each type has its own set of local regulations, which you need to check before purchasing and installing, and all need proper and controlled ventilation.
Phase 2: Insulation
What is the Best Way to Insulate a House?
We are going to show you the best way to insulate a new home.
Insulation is used to minimize heat loss from your house. When you build your home, materials used for other structures such as walls or ceilings have low heat resistance, which is why it is important to use insulation.
Heat resistance is measured by an R-value (thermal resistance). Since energy sources are expensive, good insulation is key to minimizing long-term costs. Also, this plays into the healthy housing principle of energy efficiency.
The amount of insulation you will use when building your house will depend on codes and also the climate zone you are living in. Degree-days are used to determine how much insulation to use as well.
This is a calculation that determines the mean temperature for every day in the year. All of the ceilings, floors, and walls that separate heated space from unheated space or the outside air need to be insulated.
There are various ways to install insulation, and your builder can determine which methods are best.
You can choose from 4 basic types of insulation; each of them is made from a variety of materials and come in many forms. The four types are described below:
Rigid: made from wood fiber, expanded or extruded foamed plastic, and is purchased in sheets or boards.
Loose Fill: made from glass, mineral wool fiber, and cellulose fiber and is placed by pouring or blowing into place.
Foamed-in-place: made from under pressure materials such as polyurethane and isocyanurate that can be sprayed or injected in a foamed liquid state.
Semi-rigid: made from glass and mineral wool fibers, and come in flexible insulation boards.
Manufacturers are becoming more and more environmentally conscious of energy efficiency. When you choose your insulation and are installing it in your house, remember that occupant health should also be taken into consideration.
Any that is exposed can cause health problems. Also, try to avoid products that are made from heavily processed chemicals.
All of the foundation walls that enclose heated spaces need to be insulated fully. Any insulation that is installed on the inner parts of the foundation’s walls, or below-grade, should be protected by a moisture barrier.
Floor insulation should be done for floors that are over unheated crawl spaces or unheated garages. Walls between dwelling units and garages need to be insulated the same way as the exterior walls.
Building a House part 3
Building a House part 3
The House ventilation system
Phase 2: Ventilation
The indoor air quality (IAQ) in the house you build is very important because it directly affects your health. You can incorporate two kinds of ventilation into your house; natural or mechanical.
Natural ventilation includes using windows, and mechanical ventilation includes using machine systems that exhaust indoor air and/or bring outdoor air into the house.
Both kinds of ventilation have rules under local building codes, which you need to refer to when planning.
Things like smells, contamination, and moisture can be managed properly when there is proper ventilation in the building. Moisture control is extremely important because if there is not a good balance of moisture in the home mold and mildew can grow.
This can cause health problems and also impact the integrity of the home. There needs to be proper ventilation in the house that is planned out in the house design and construction.
We tried to use both forms of ventilation in our house, with a strong focus on natural ventilation (since we love windows and natural light, to begin with, this was an added benefit for us).
Mechanical ventilation uses installed machine systems that operate continuously so that they can be used all year. In cases where there is expected extra humidity in the house (say, for example, you cook and shower a lot) you will need to use continuous mechanical ventilation to maintain a safe and comfortable level of humidity.
Check your local building codes for the kinds of mechanical ventilation designs you can use; a mix of different alternatives is possible and if this is done, it needs to be executed by local codes.
Natural ventilation happens when you use windows during the warmer times of the year (when you don’t need to use heat in the home) and the air from the outside enters the home to create a comfortable temperature.
But during the seasons when heating is needed in the home, you will need to use a mechanical ventilation system so that you don’t have large amounts of heat loss and waste energy.
What we found interesting was that those rooms that have mechanical ventilation do not need a natural ventilation source, but of course, other things like fire safety also need to be taken into consideration.
We researched a system called “Heat Recovery Ventilators” that are said to recover heat from the air being expelled from the house, and then transfer this heat to the air coming into the home.
In the long run, this type of system is cost-effective and can save a lot of energy and money. There are different kinds of these systems, so do your research to see which would suit your home best.
Don’t forget that you will need to clean and maintain the system you choose, so look into how much work you will need to put into it in the long run.
Last Stage Of Home Building
Phase 3: Construction Final Finishes
Now you are nearing the end of completing your dream home. Stage 3 is when you see all your hard work and your vision pull together.
Enjoy this stage; you can put in the final touches and add personal taste here and there to make this building your own home!
The main things you will tackle during phase three have to do with the final finishes in your home. Items such as dry-wall finishes, painting, varnishing, etc.
You will also install things like your fixtures, and cabinets, and do your painting from room to room. And, of course, the last but not least finish will be your landscaping.
This we thoroughly enjoyed; we see our home as a haven away from our busy work lives and so we invested a lot of time into designing a beautiful garden and landscape.
Here is a quick summary of each of the steps for you:
Stage 1 – Interior Finishing: Finish the ceilings, walls, and floor finishes. Once these items were completed and were prepared for painting and varnishing, we completed the other carpentry work such as finishes around interior doors, handrails, frames, and trim.
Stage 2 – Fixtures, Cabinets, Paint:
Begin with interior painting, then install cabinets and fixtures. Once the painting is done, the cabinets can be installed.
Major equipment connections, such as furnaces, water heaters, stoves, clothes dryers, etc. are connected during this time. Final fixtures for plumbing, electrical finishes, light fixtures, and other fixtures are also installed.
Stage 3 – Landscaping:
This stage can be seen as the final touch to finishing your house building. Items such as fences, decks, walkways, steps, driveways, gardens, shrubs, and trees are put into place.
You are one step closer to completing your dream home! If at any point you need to remember what you did for each stage, browse through our modules once again to help you build your own house.
House Interior Finishes
Phase 3: Interior Walls and Ceiling
Now comes one of the most satisfying parts of building your own home; completing the interior finishes for the wall and ceilings.
At this point, you will see things come together and the vision of your home will be close to complete.
Typically, contractors will use drywall (aka gypsum board) for the wall and ceiling frame, but you can also use lumber, hardboard, plywood, and late veneer hardboard.
Drywall is the finish of preference for many because it is low cost, takes less time to install when compared to other finishes, and yields consistent results.
It is a sheet material that is made up of gypsum filler between two layers of paper and the edges along the length are typically tapered on one side so that it is easy to apply tape and joint compound.
Drywall is also manufactured in different forms for use, such as water-resistant, fire-rated, and prefinished, and is supplied in 4 ft. (1.22 m) widths, with varying lengths.
Usually, the finish boards are applied horizontally rather than vertically since it minimizes the amount of nailing. When using a gypsum board, it is best to apply the board in such a way that a minimum amount of supplementary fasteners are needed.
The boards can be attached to woof members by double nailing, screwing, single or double nailing, or glue and nailing.
Nails should be set slightly below the surface without damaging the paper. Sometimes, lumber is used as a decorative finish to walls and ceilings.
In terms of Healthy Housing Principles, the kind of wall and ceiling finish you use will have certain implications for those living in the house you are building and will live in for many years.
Also, thinking about how easy it will be to clean and maintain the materials you use will be an important factor in your material choice.
When we chose our materials, we did our best to purchase local materials that were not synthetic and recyclable. Also, we picked materials that were highly durable, and easy to maintain (such as solid wood paneling and ceramic tile).
Next, you will need to complete the floor coverings. Two things you need to keep in mind when deciding what material to use are durability and how easy it will be to clean.
You can use flooring in sheet or tile form, ceramic tile (typically used in kitchens, washrooms, and main entrances since they are water-resistant), carpets, and hardwood (most commonly used in living and dining areas, bedrooms, and corridors).
Building an Eco-Friendly House
There are many opportunities to use Healthy Housing concepts in your wood-frame construction and home building. When making plans on how to build your house wood-frame house construction represents an environmentally responsible choice.
Healthy Housing principles can be worked into many stages of wood-frame house building but should be especially considered during the design phase before commencing construction.
What is Healthy Housing?
Healthy Housing is the foundation of many of the concepts discussed on the pages and tutorials on this website. Many of the processes in wood-frame housing acknowledge that there is a relationship between the health of people, the environment, and the economy.
As a renewable resource, using wood in your house building can improve the quality of life, can contribute to the economy, and can help sustain the natural environment.
Healthy Housing can be used at various stages of structure building – whether it be through your interior finishes, landscaping, or the siting of the building.
5 principles make up the Healthy Housing concept: Occupant Health, Resource Efficiency, Energy Efficiency, Environmental Responsibility, and Affordability.
A: OCCUPANT HEALTH
Radiation, Sound, Light Avoid exposure to electromagnetic fields, isolate external and internal noise sources, and provide as much adequate natural light throughout the house as possible.
Indoor Air Quality reduces the level of contaminants built into the building by selecting proper materials, removing any contaminants at the source, and creating fresh dilution of house air with fresh air by using ventilation.
Water Quality Select a safe supply of potable water, and if this cannot be done, incorporate an adequate home treatment to remove bacteria, contaminants, chemicals, and distasteful tastes and odors.
B: ENERGY EFFICIENCY:
Energy for Heating, Cooling, and Ventilation Choose high-efficiency equipment that has the proper capacity and select proper house energy sources.
. Renewable Energy Technologies Improve natural ventilation and cooling of homes during hot months and orient the building and windows in such a way that the building captures solar gains during cold months.
Thermal Performance Create a compact design (reduce the building envelope) by creating proper insulation and airtight constructs, and by using high-performance windows.
Electrical Consumption Reduce electrical consumption during mornings and early evenings, which are the peak hours of the day by using controls, and by utilizing energy-efficient appliances and lights
C: RESOURCE EFFICIENCY:
Long life and Resilience Construct a durable building with thermal envelope finishes.
Embodied Energy Consider environmental impacts associated with using certain materials and use recycled, renewable and reused materials where possible.
Waste Management Use construction materials wisely to reduce waste, and recycle and reuse where possible.
Water Design landscaping and natural drainage systems to minimize water consumption outdoors and install plumbing fixtures that are water-efficient both indoors and outdoors.
D: ENVIRONMENTAL RESPONSIBILITY
Sewage and Wastewater Encourage water conservation through the reduction of sewage and water waste.
Community Planning Reduce ecological damage and take advantage of the sun and wind in designing viable communities. Hazardous Materials During the construction of your home avoid the use of hazardous materials.
Affordability Strive to create affordable purchase prices and long-term operating costs.
Adaptability Design and build to home to enable cost-effective renovations.
Adaptability Design and build to home to enable cost-effective renovations.
House Green Building Materials
Healthy housing principles revolve around conservation and minimizing waste as much as possible. My family and I are very environmentally conscious and because of this, we tried to be very careful with the house construction materials we used, how much waste we produced, and how much energy we used.
All of the materials we used in our designs and our construction plans tried to be environmentally responsible as possible. Also, we found that using Healthy Housing principles when building our home help with affordability and costs.
As we began collecting the materials to build our house, we made sure that we stored the materials in proper areas with protection. This is because, if the materials are left out in rough weather that changes, you can damage the materials which would mean more needs to be purchased.
Also, sometimes you might not be able to see the damage clearly, and you will end up using the materials which can lead to construction defects.
We made sure that we had the house construction materials delivered to our construction site right before we needed them so that the risk of the materials being left out and damaged was small.
Our builders and designers worked these items into the plan as much as possible. For example, only after the foundation is complete did we have the sheathing materials and framing lumber delivered to the site.
When keeping lumber on-site, stack them on skids that are high off the ground and cover the pile with a waterproof cover. Any lumber that is stored in close piles can soak up water, which in turn causes a very slow drying out process.
Dimension lumber is commonly used for framing and is usually 1 ½ to 3 ½ in. (38 to 89 mm) thick. Anything thicker than this is called timber.
Any lumber that you will use to build your house will have a grade stamp, which marks that it conforms to the National Lumber Grades Authority (NLGA) grading rules for lumber.
Lumber is given a particular grade depending on its physical characteristics. Select Structural is the highest grade. Engineered wood products (EWPs) are also used for wood-frame housing and are made using less wood from small, faster-growing trees and make better use of forest resources.
Typically, once the framing has started, you can start to bring in the roofing shingles and plan for the installation of windows and doors.
Other smaller items can be stored inside the house for protection once the roofing is done. However, try not to put too much in one spot on the floor since this can overload the floor joints.
Any house construction materials related to interior trims of hardwood flooring should only be brought in after the basement floor is done and completely dried. This is because before drying is done, the floor gives off moisture.
Features to Consider When Building a New Home 2022:
What should be included in a new home? There are many smart and interesting features that you should consider when thinking about the construction of a new home.
What are the most important new “cool“ features to consider when building a new home in 2022? Nowadays everyone wants to have and acquire cool things to include when building a house.
Usually, these can be small things that get forgotten when building a house or major things that homeowners are not aware of if they don’t follow the new technologies.
Building technology advances every day. To put your mind at ease, remind yourself that technology has always advanced to make our lives better. Therefore, you should consider a few things that we are going to discuss.
It’s better to at least have an idea rather than later feeling like you missed out on something, things that you would wish if you did have or considered when building your new house.
What building Construction & Materials Inventions Have Improved Everyday Life?
There are many important new inventions to consider when building a new house. We are specifically talking about new technologies such as automation or smart home technologies.
We will talk about other considerations like space planning, House Green Features, Safety and Disaster-Resistant Features, etc.
These are the Must-Have New Features of 2022:
Smart Technology House Features:
Automation, as you might have noticed, is increasingly becoming an important part of our lives in all aspects. In the year 2022, new technological inventions will make a huge impact on our daily life more than ever.
We aim to help you better understand new innovative ideas for daily life. We all agree that technology has made life better.
Sometimes, simple innovative ideas in technology can make your life much better and can greatly increase your quality of life.
Nowadays everyone should consider the top-notch new smart security systems such as smart locks, smart remote surveillance cameras, smart security alarm systems, and home automation systems in general.
You can turn on and off lights by just clapping your hands, what other technological advancements can be developed in the future? More than you think.
This is just the beginning. Technology has a great, mostly positive, impact on our daily life, and we think you should consider implementing some of the new smart features into your new home.
The Automation of the House:
So what are the custom home must-haves of the year 2022?
This is a list that we think is a must-have:
Smart Home Building Systems
Smart or Switchable Glass
House Green Features
New Green Materials Features
Non-Toxic Building Materials
Low-Maintenance Exterior Materials
Durable Exterior Materials
Safety and Disaster-Resistant Features
A Climate-Proof, Resilient House
What Are Smart Home Building Systems?
Residential home automation systems or smart building system is when almost everything in a house is designed to be controlled remotely.
For example, controlling appliances. lights and other devices can be done remotely using a smart device such as a smartphone More often, through an internet connection, all aspects of the house can be controlled using one smart device or central control unit. Smart homes can also be set up through wireless or hardwired systems.
The purpose of smart home technology, or the smart home building system is to provide people with convenience and ease of use.
Even heating, ventilation and air conditioning, doors and windows, lighting, or water heating systems can be controlled using smart home building systems.
How To Build Your Own Home Automation System?
For you to build your residential home automation systems, we strongly recommend you first understand the different categories of home smart systems.
Building a smart home system with a thorough understanding of this powerful technology or without a plan can backfire.
Building a good smart home building system shouldn’t be hard if you are well informed. No worries, though, we will teach you step by step everything you need to know about home automation.
Smart Home Systems and New Construction
Even though you can add smart features to an already built home, implementing the new smart features is best done during new home constructions.
During the construction phase, it’s easier to build and prepare a house for automation. For instance, many of the smart features can be designed to be hidden, where it will be harder to hide in an already built home.